Nayak Nayika Bhed In English

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Nayak Nayika Bhed In English

Nayak Nayika Bhed

(1) In Sanskrit literature, classifications of dramatic characters have been presented mostly in Bharata’s Natya Shastra and distinctions have been made in Vatsyayana’s Kamasutra, which are often related to the sex trades of men and women. ,

(2). The later writers of Sanskrit and Hindi, while accepting the status of “Agnipuran”, have expanded this subject within the boundaries of Shringararas.

(3) These limits, which are exceeded only by way of exception, may be understood as follows:-

  • Under the Nayak-Nayika distinction, only the normal and natural relationship between a man and a woman has been depicted. Unnatural or unnatural sex trades have no place in this scripture.
  • Only the love of beautiful boys and girls has been accepted.
  • It is considered necessary to follow the rules of social decorum so that there is no disturbance in Rasanubhuti.
  • One sided love is not accepted. There should be love in both men and women.
  • Description of anything outside makeup is prohibited. The description of the pregnant woman is considered to be the despotism of the poet. The reason for the respect of the Nayika can be nothing other than the love of the Nayak.

Nayak Bhed

(1). Bharat has made four distinctions of Nayakes: Dhiralalit, Dhirprashant, Dhirodatta, Dhiroddhat. These distinctions belong to the protagonist of the play.

(2) In “Agnipuran” four more distinctions are mentioned in addition to these: Anukul, Dakshina, Shath, Dhrishta.

(3). These differences are clearly related to the dependence of Shringar Rasa. Bhoja (11th century) has mentioned many other classifications in addition to these two in “Saraswatikanthabharana” and “Sringarprakash”.

(4).But only one classification among them, which was also mentioned by Bharata as the distinctions of men, was accepted by the later writers: Uttam, Madhyam, Adham.

(5). Bhanudatta (1300 AD) gave a new classification in “Rasmanjari”, which was later considered as the main classification. This is: husband, deputy veshik.

(6) Favorable etc. distinctions were accepted under husband and deputy husband. Bhanudatta mentions another distinction of the name Proshit.

(7). Rup Goswami (1500 AD) did not accept Vaishika in “Ujjwalanilmani”. He has considered Krishna as the only Nayak.

(8). Except the first of the above-mentioned classifications, the major writers of Nayakbhed in Hindi have almost accepted the rest.

(9).Considering Pati, Upapati, Vaishik as the main classification, friendly, Dakshina, Shath, Ghrishtha distinctions have been kept under husband.

(10). Only a few writers in Hindi have accepted the best, medium, adham distinctions of the Nayak, in which Sundar (1631 AD), Cannon (1634 AD) and Rasleen (1742 AD) are prominent.

(11). Some other differences of the Nayak are as follows: Proshit, considered, clever, ignorant. There are two types of value: Rupmani, Gunmani.

(12). There are also two differences between clever: words clever, action-clever. Along with these, Rasleen has also mentioned about Swayamdoot Nayaka.

(13). Hindi’s Nayak-Nayika-distinction related literature has mostly been produced in Ritikal.

(14). This poetry of Nayak-Nayika-distinction is the result of the confluence of two strong currents.

(15). The first stream of these is literature and classical texts related to the distinction between Nayak and Nayika, which begins with Bharat’s “Natshastra”; And the second stream is the description of Krishna and Gopis Shringar Krida, flowing in the valleys of “Harivansh”, “Padma”, “Vishnu”, “Bhagavata” and “Brahmavaivatam” Puranas and Umapatidhar, Jayadeva, Chandidas, Vidyapati, Meera, Enriched by the melodious speech of many devotee poets like Narsingh Mehta and Surdas etc., it has been confirmed by the support of great Acharyas like Nimbarka, Vallabha and Chaitanya.

Nayika Bhed (Sanskrit and Hindi)

(1). According to Bharata, there are eight distinctions of Nayika: Vaskajja, Virhotkanthita, Swadhinpatika, Kalhantarita, Khandita, Vipralabdha, Proshitbhartrika, Abhisarika.

(2). We will call this situation discrimination. According to the later authors, which have been called “Prakriti-Bheda”, there are three types of Nayikas: Uttama, Madhyama, Adhama.

(3). In addition to the above mentioned three classifications, Bhanudatta has mentioned a new classification, which was later accepted by most of the Hindi writers.

(4). That is, : Nayika : Anyasmbhogad: Khita, Vakroktigarvita, Manavati. Vakroktigarvita: Premgarvita, beauty pride.

(5). In addition to this, Bhanudutt has mentioned some new strains of Mugdha and Udha in Shodash Bheda classification, which are as follows, Mugdha: Known youth, unknown youth.

(6). Hindi writers have followed Bhanudatta the most. Shing Bhupal and Vishwanath (Sahityadarpan, 14th century) have mentioned two strains of Sammana: Rakta, Virkta.

(7). Vishwanath has mentioned five divisions of Mugdha, five of Madhya, and six of Pragalbha, but did not include these distinctions in the number of Nayika.

(8). Goswami did not accept Sammana considering only “Harivallabhas” as Nayika.

(9). He has also considered Mugdha, Madhya, Pragalbha under Parakiya. The six divisions of Mugdha, the four divisions of Madhya and the seven divisions of Pragalbha mentioned by Rupa Goswami are similar to those of Vishwanatha.