Alpatva Bahutva in English Indian Music Theory

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Alpatva Bahutva in English

 Alpatva Bahutva in English Indian Music Theory is decribed in this post of Online sangeet. Learn Indian Classical Music Theory & Hindustani Music Theory in English .



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Alpatva Bahutva –

Generally Alpatva means Less & Bahutva means more .

The amount of swars used in a raga can be roughly expressed in two words, Alpatva & Bahutva . When a swar is used less , then the place of that swar is considered to be a Alpatva . On the other hand , when a swar is used in abundance, then its place is considered as Bahutva .

For example, in Kedar Raga, Nishad(Ni) is less used, hence its place will be Alpatva . On the other hand, Gandhara(Ga) is used more in Purvi raag , so it will be Bahutva .

See some more examples –

In the Aaroh  of the Bihag raag , the notes Re and Dha are not used , but are used in the Avaroh . Therefore, their place in Aaroh is Langhan Alpatva, but in Avaroh (descending) it is especially important, that is, due to not having Nyas , their place is Anabyas Alpatva .

 In this way, there are two main

Types of alpatva –

  • Langhan Alpatva
  • Anabyas Alpatva

From the point of view of Bahutva also, there are two types of swaras used in a raga. The first one is called Alanghan Bahutva and the second one is called Abhyas Bahutva . Whenever the use of a swar is necessary, that is, without using it , the form of a raga does not come or there is a shadow of a similar nature raga, then the place of that swar is Alanghan Bahutva .

Types of  Bahutva –

  • Abhyas Bahutva
  • Alanghan Bahutva

For example,

In Jaunpuri raga, Nishad is such a swar , if it is not used, there is loss of melody on the one hand, and on the other hand, its equivalent raga Asavari casts a shadow. Hence: Nishad’s place in Jaunpuri raga will be Alanghan Bahutva .

On the other hand, in this raga, Fifth swar Pa is such a swar, on which we do nyas while reciting aalap and rest on it while moving around. The place of such a note in that raga is considered to be Abhyas Mulak Bahutva .

Similarly, in Vrindavani Sarang, the place of Sa, Re and Pa is Abhyas Mulak Bahutva and Madhyam Ma and the place of both Ni is Alanghan Mulak Bahutva . The description of Alpatva Bahutva is found for the first time in 13th century Sharangdev’s ‘Sangeet Ratnakar’. The principle of Alpatva Bahutva does not apply at all raags  in the context of the voices .

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